Italy to run on 0.6% biofuel by 2018

October 16, 2014

From 2018, 0.6% of petrol and diesel used in Italy will be made up of advanced biofuels, the BBC reports. This is set to increase to 1% by 2022.

The Italian government is the first in Europe to take a stand on biofuels. The ministerial decree is in line with the European Parliament target for 2.5% of energy used within the transportation sector to consist of advanced biofuels (made of seaweed and waste) by 2020.

The European Council then downgraded this to a non-binding target of 0.5% advanced biofuels by 2020.
The measures are part of the EU energy directive, which requires renewable energy sources to provide 10% of transportation fuel by 2020.

The use of fuels made from crops has been a source of controversy within the EU for some years. Many claim the growing of crops used for first generation biofuel production, including sugar, cereals and oilseed, take up land space needed to grow food. In addition, there are worries surrounding the volume of carbon emissions generated by biofuels. Despite this, a number of new second generation biofuels plants have recently opened.

The biofuel industry has also been lobbying hard to promote the use of biofuels within the EU.
A commercial scale advanced biofuels plant was opened in Crescentino near Turin, in Italy last year. The plant produces approximately 75 million litres of biofuel from waste and energy crops, grown on marginal land.

Plans to open three further plants in the south of the country are also in motion.

Chris Malins from the the International Council on Clean Transportation commented on the Italian decree: “This is quite an exciting time, things are finally starting to happen,”

“This shows Italy taking a real leadership role in Europe. It will be an example and a signal to other countries that are interested in this.”

Sources: BBC; The Green Optimistic

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TJC offers an extensive global network of professional & experienced multilingual translators, proof-readers and interpreters. We also have academic researchers, specialists and speakers, who are all native speakers of over 100 languages. Our expert translators and interpreters are based all over the globe and can assist you with projects of all kinds.

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JAXA Plans Solar Power Plant In Space

May 27, 2014

Picture this: a giant solar power plant floating in space, gathering the sun’s energy with virtually no constraints from the weather, seasons or time of day, delivering a constant supply of green energy to Earth. Sound a little too Sci-Fi? Well, thanks to JAXA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, we could actually witness this incredible technology in just over a decade.

The idea of a space power plant has actually been around for a while. Back in 1968, American aerospace engineer Dr. Peter Glaser pioneered the space solar power concept and proposed the deployment of giant solar panels in space in order to generate microwaves that could be transmitted back to Earth to produce electricity. The concept sparked a lot of interest, even from NASA, but it came to a halt in the ‘80s because of the high costs involved. Japan, however, pursued the idea and is currently the world leader of the Space Solar Power Systems (SSPS) project.

This colossal satellite, hovering around 22,000 miles (36,000 kilometers) above Earth, would be several miles long and weigh a whopping 10,000 metric tons. These floating solar panels would actually be tethered to a station on the ground in order to keep the satellite at a fixed point in geostationary orbit. The proposed model also includes a set of mirrors that reflect the sun’s light onto the panels so that when the satellite is not facing the sun it can still receive sunlight.

And now for the really tricky part: getting all of that solar energy back to Earth so that we can use it. There are two possible ways that this could be achieved which involve converting the solar energy into either laser beams or microwaves, or perhaps even a combination of both, which would then be transmitted to a receiving facility (called a “rectenna” [rectifying antenna]) situated on Earth. Ground-based experiments are currently underway to discern which option would be most efficient.

These space based solar panels would be around 5-10 times more efficient than ground-based solar conversion systems. Furthermore, CO2 emissions will be low and will only come from the receiving facility. It’s predicted that SSPS will be able to process around 1 gigawatt of power, which is a similar amount to nuclear power stations.

Although Japan are the leading country with regards to making SSPS happen, in reality the costs will be so astronomical that it is likely contributions from other countries will be required before we see this behemoth space power station start to take shape. This concept may seem a little far-fetched, but JAXA believe they are getting tantalizingly close to turning this vision into a reality.

Check out JAXA’s SSPS YouTube video to find out more:

Read more at http://www.iflscience.com/technology/japan-wants-put-giant-solar-farm-space#sjWyYpropCur1eeA.99

Picture this: a giant solar power plant floating in space, gathering the sun’s energy with virtually no constraints from the weather, seasons or time of day, delivering a constant supply of green energy to Earth. Sound a little too Sci-Fi? Well, thanks to JAXA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, we could actually witness this incredible technology in just over a decade.

The idea of a space power plant has actually been around for a while. Back in 1968, American aerospace engineer Dr. Peter Glaser pioneered the space solar power concept and proposed the deployment of giant solar panels in space in order to generate microwaves that could be transmitted back to Earth to produce electricity. The concept sparked a lot of interest, even from NASA, but it came to a halt in the ‘80s because of the high costs involved. Japan, however, pursued the idea and is currently the world leader of the Space Solar Power Systems (SSPS) project.

This colossal satellite, hovering around 22,000 miles (36,000 kilometers) above Earth, would be several miles long and weigh a whopping 10,000 metric tons. These floating solar panels would actually be tethered to a station on the ground in order to keep the satellite at a fixed point in geostationary orbit. The proposed model also includes a set of mirrors that reflect the sun’s light onto the panels so that when the satellite is not facing the sun it can still receive sunlight.

And now for the really tricky part: getting all of that solar energy back to Earth so that we can use it. There are two possible ways that this could be achieved which involve converting the solar energy into either laser beams or microwaves, or perhaps even a combination of both, which would then be transmitted to a receiving facility (called a “rectenna” [rectifying antenna]) situated on Earth. Ground-based experiments are currently underway to discern which option would be most efficient.

These space based solar panels would be around 5-10 times more efficient than ground-based solar conversion systems. Furthermore, CO2 emissions will be low and will only come from the receiving facility. It’s predicted that SSPS will be able to process around 1 gigawatt of power, which is a similar amount to nuclear power stations.

Although Japan are the leading country with regards to making SSPS happen, in reality the costs will be so astronomical that it is likely contributions from other countries will be required before we see this behemoth space power station start to take shape. This concept may seem a little far-fetched, but JAXA believe they are getting tantalizingly close to turning this vision into a reality.

Check out JAXA’s SSPS YouTube video to find out more:

Read more at http://www.iflscience.com/technology/japan-wants-put-giant-solar-farm-space#sjWyYpropCur1eeA.99

Picture this: a giant solar power plant floating in space, gathering the sun’s energy with virtually no constraints from the weather, seasons or time of day, delivering a constant supply of green energy to Earth. Sound a little too Sci-Fi? Well, thanks to JAXA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, we could actually witness this incredible technology in just over a decade.

The idea of a space power plant has actually been around for a while. Back in 1968, American aerospace engineer Dr. Peter Glaser pioneered the space solar power concept and proposed the deployment of giant solar panels in space in order to generate microwaves that could be transmitted back to Earth to produce electricity. The concept sparked a lot of interest, even from NASA, but it came to a halt in the ‘80s because of the high costs involved. Japan, however, pursued the idea and is currently the world leader of the Space Solar Power Systems (SSPS) project.

This colossal satellite, hovering around 22,000 miles (36,000 kilometers) above Earth, would be several miles long and weigh a whopping 10,000 metric tons. These floating solar panels would actually be tethered to a station on the ground in order to keep the satellite at a fixed point in geostationary orbit. The proposed model also includes a set of mirrors that reflect the sun’s light onto the panels so that when the satellite is not facing the sun it can still receive sunlight.

And now for the really tricky part: getting all of that solar energy back to Earth so that we can use it. There are two possible ways that this could be achieved which involve converting the solar energy into either laser beams or microwaves, or perhaps even a combination of both, which would then be transmitted to a receiving facility (called a “rectenna” [rectifying antenna]) situated on Earth. Ground-based experiments are currently underway to discern which option would be most efficient.

These space based solar panels would be around 5-10 times more efficient than ground-based solar conversion systems. Furthermore, CO2 emissions will be low and will only come from the receiving facility. It’s predicted that SSPS will be able to process around 1 gigawatt of power, which is a similar amount to nuclear power stations.

Although Japan are the leading country with regards to making SSPS happen, in reality the costs will be so astronomical that it is likely contributions from other countries will be required before we see this behemoth space power station start to take shape. This concept may seem a little far-fetched, but JAXA believe they are getting tantalizingly close to turning this vision into a reality.

Read more at http://www.iflscience.com/technology/japan-wants-put-giant-solar-farm-space#sjWyYpropCur1eeA.99

The idea of a solar power plant in space has actually been around since 1968, American aerospace engineer Dr. Peter Glaser pioneered the space solar power concept and proposed the deployment of giant solar panels in space in order to generate microwaves that could be transmitted back to Earth to produce electricity. The concept sparked a lot of interest, even from NASA, but it came to a halt in the ‘80s because of the high costs involved. Japan, however, pursued the idea and is currently the world leader of the Space Solar Power Systems (SSPS) project.

The plan is to build a giant satellite, hovering around 22,000 miles (36,000 kilometers) above Earth, it would be several miles long and weigh around 10,000 metric tons. Floating solar panels would be tethered to a station on the ground in order to keep the satellite at a fixed point in geostationary orbit. The proposed model also includes a set of mirrors that reflect the sun’s light onto the panels so that when the satellite is not facing the sun it can still receive sunlight. Collecting sunlight from outside the Earth’s atmosphere, provides a continuous supply, with almost no influence from the weather, the seasons, or time of day. Since the energy source is the sun, it’s an endlessly renewable resource, Also, because the power is generated in space and carbon dioxide is emitted only at the receiving site, emissions within the Earth’s atmosphere can be greatly reduced, which makes this technology very environmentally friendly.

The more complex part is how to transport that solar energy back to Earth. JAXA is currently conducting ground-based experiments to find the most efficient way to transmit energy. There are two possible ways  this could be achieved either converting the solar energy into  laser beams or microwaves, or perhaps even a combination of both, which would then be transmitted to a receiving facility (called a “rectenna” [rectifying antenna]) situated on Earth. Ground-based experiments are currently underway to discern which option would be most efficient.

When transmitting power by microwaves, a significant technological challenge is how to control the direction, and transmit it with pinpoint accuracy from a geostationary orbit to a receiving site on the ground. Japan currently has the most advanced technology to do this but transmitting microwaves from an altitude of 36,000 kilometers to a flat surface 3 km in diameter is like threading a needle from space.

There are many other technological challenges to solve before SSPS can be implemented. However, in principle, it is getting close to the stage where it is feasible. Researchers have started preparation for the world’s first demonstration of 1kW-class wireless power transmission technology, and are aiming for practical use in the 2030s. It’s predicted that SSPS will be able to process around 1 gigawatt of power, which is a similar amount to nuclear power stations.

Although Japan is the leading country with regards to making SSPS happen, in reality the costs will be so astronomical that it is likely contributions from other countries will be required before we see this behemoth space power station start to take shape however, JAXA believe they are getting tantalizingly close to turning this vision into a reality.

 

Sources: JAXA, Japan Space Systems, iflscience.com

TJC offers an extensive global network of professional & experienced multilingual translators, proof-readers and interpreters. We also have academic researchers, specialists and speakers, who are all native speakers of over 100 languages. Our expert translators and interpreters are based all over the globe and can assist you with projects of all kinds.

For translation and interpreting services in Japanese, please visit our sister site, The Japanese Connection.

Members of: ATCITIProz

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“Massive shift” to renewable energy needed, says UN report

April 14, 2014

A new report drawn up by the United Nations has called for a ‘massive shift’ to renewable energy. The study, which comes after a week of hard negotiations between scientists and government officials in Berlin, Germany, says that climate change can only be reduced by a significant and rapid shift away from non-renewable carbon fuels.

Whilst the report advocates the use of natural gas as a means of bridging the transition from oil and coal to other, renewable sources of energy, such as wind and hydroelectricity, the UN has as yet been unable to agree upon how this energy transition will be funded.

The UK’s Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed Davey spoke of the importance of fighting climate change by all possible means, saying that “We can do this, we have to because it’s so challenging and threatening to our economies and societies, our health, our food security. The report today shows we can do it if we have the political will.”

The UK prides itself on being a major contributor to the fight against climate change and a leader in the use of renewable energy sources. Mr Davey added that “We’ve, for example, doubled the amount of renewable electricity in the last few years. We’re likely to do better than our targets in increasing renewable electricity. But we’ve got to do more.”

The United Nations report suggests that of all of the carbon emitted by human activity since 1750 has been produced in the past 40 years, and rates continue to rise. In particular, the report draws attention to the high increase in coal use since 2000: before this point, global energy rates were pointing towards a possible trend of decarbonisation.

The report warns that if drastic action is not taken immediately, our continually growing population and subsequent increased levels of fuel use could cause the average temperature of our planet to rise by up to 4.8 degrees Celsius by 2100, far above the 2 degree level which is commonly regarded as the point beyond which dangerous impacts of climate change will be felt.

However, scientists involved in the report believe that this situation is not irreversible, and whilst it will involve massive changes in the energy sector. Professor Jim Skea, vice chair of one of the groups working on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) report, said that “One of the biggest areas that’s important is getting the carbon out of electricity, so renewable energy, nuclear, fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage, that’s all part of the menu if we are going to make the transition to stay under the 2 degree target.”

For this target to be reached, the world will need to see a 40-70 per cent lowering of carbon emissions by 2050. The IPCC is a keen advocate of the use of renewables in reaching this target, and has praised the progress that renewable energy has made over the past few years, saying that it has come on in ‘leaps and bounds’ since 2007. In 2012, renewable energy use accounted for just over half of the new electricity generation added around the world, and it is hoped that such progress will continue to increase as the need for a reduction in carbon emissions reaches critical levels.

Sources include: The Guardian, BBC News

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TJC offers an extensive global network of professional & experienced multilingual translators, proof-readers and interpreters. We also have academic researchers, specialists and speakers, who are all native speakers of over 100 languages. Our expert translators and interpreters are based all over the globe and can assist you with projects of all kinds  related to construction and industry.

Members of: ATCITIProz

See our LinkedIn profile or visit us on Twitter

See our LinkedIn profile or visit us on Twitter


Floating wind farms off Fukushima coastline mark a big step in the search for alternative energy sources

November 12, 2013

In the wake of the March 2011 earthquake and ensuing tsunami that devastatedJapan’s Fukushima prefecture, attention has turned increasingly towardsalternative sources of energy, as Japan seeks to downscale its dependency on nuclear energy.

Recent explorations into the world of renewable energy have led researchers towards wind power as a potential alternative, and indeed, a floating wind turbine station set up just off the coast of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant marks an important step in the downscaling operation.

The floating turbines, which lie 20 kilometres away from the coast where the damaged nuclear power plant is located, could become the world’s largest offshore wind farm, capitalising fully on the huge potential Japan has for wind power.

Japan’s offshore winds reportedly have the capacity to produce over 1500 gigawatts of power, a remarkable figure representing over five times the amount of power currently produced by Japan’s existing energy companies.

Takeshi Ishihara, who leads the Fukushima wind farm project alongside his role as a civil engineer at the University of Tokyo, says of the project: “I believe that the Fukushima (wind) project will help the Fukushima region and Japan as a whole move toward more use of renewable energy.” In the wake of the March 2011 disaster, nuclear energy is no longer seen as a dependable source of energy, and as such, wind power is a source of renewable energy that is increasingly seen as vital to Japan’s search for alternative energy sources.

The idea of an offshore wind farm is relatively novel in terms of renewable energy, but its development is an important one, bringing with it several advantages which set it apart from traditional wind turbine towers.

The construction of normal wind towers is usually done from the seafloor upwards; a costly process which becomes exponentially more costly in waters upwards of 50 metres in depth. In the waters off Japan’s coastline, sea levels lie at 50 metres at the bare minimum, increasing up to 200 metres in some areas. Floating wind turbine stations present a solution to this financial problem, as they come complete with their own substation, and are firmly rooted to the seabed by huge steel chains, allowing them to operate efficiently even in the deepest waters.

And as they are located further out from the coastline, these floating wind farm stations will benefit from the faster wind speeds found off the coast. Walt Musial, principal engineer at the National Wind Technology Centre in Colorado, USA, said of the wind stations: “Japan has lots of deep water off the coast, which is a good wind resource. In order to develop that resource it needs to be at the forefront for floating turbine technology.”

Whilst the Fukushima wind farm project does still have some way to go before its completion, facing obstacles both technologically and politically, it nevertheless marks a positive step in Japan’s quest for alternative sources of energy. Sources suggest that reputed companies such as Marubeni, Mitsubishi and Hitachi are keen to pay for the installation of 140 floating wind turbines, pending a successful pilot of the scheme.

Sources include: The Japan Daily Press

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TJC offers an extensive global network of professional & experienced multilingual translators, proof-readers and interpreters. We also have academic researchers, specialists and speakers, who are all native speakers of over 180 languages. Our expert translators can assist you in research for the carbon market and communication with foreign companies to support the process.

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Japan to buy Canadian shale gas

September 29, 2013

During a visit to Ottawa, the Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, announced that Japan would like to reinforce imports of Canadian natural gas in order to diversify supply in the post-Fukushima nuclear dearth.

During a joint press conference with his Canadian counterpart, Stephen Harper, Abe stated that Tokyo “strongly hopes to strengthen cooperation” with Ottawa.

Huge deposits of shale in the west mean that Canada is the third largest producer of natural gas. “Canada possesses a significant level of energy resources, including natural gas, which show considerable potential in terms of energy cooperation” he noted. Japan’s natural gas imports have increased since the Fukushima disaster and now the country wants to “ensure a stable supply of LNG (liquefied natural gas) at competitive prices” the Prime Minister explained.

At his side, Stephen Harper, whose government is a strong supporter of fossil fuels,  stated that he and Abe met with Canadian business leaders and that “the discussion was focused on energy.” The two countries are currently conducting two “very important” economic negotiations, he continued without giving any further details.

Before these comments, the Japanese media had said that Tokyo and Ottawa may come to an agreement which would allow Japan to import up to 40 million tons per year of Canadian shale gas. This would represent over 45% of the volume of LNG imported by Japan in 2012.

The media also reported on the possibility of Japanese aid to facilitate Canadian exports of LNG. Tokyo could, among other possibilities, assist in the construction of pipelines in Canada to transport gas from production sites to ports, while supporting the development of an infrastructure to help process shale gas into LNG.

As the third largest global economy, Japan is the largest consumer of LNG in the world. Yet, it pays higher prices for the gas than both Europe and North America. Asian contracts are often long-term and are as such based on oil price indexes, meaning the cost is ultimately higher than those on the gas market for short-term contracts.

This discrepancy is even more detrimental to Japan since it had to greatly increase imports of natural gas to compensate for the shutdown in nuclear power after the Fukushima disaster in March 2011. As a precaution, none of the 50 reactors are now in operation.

If this more recent agreement with Canada materializes, it will occur after two recently concluded agreements with the United States for the delivery of 6.7 million tons of shale per year to Japan from 2017.  Japan clearly hopes to negotiate lower prices by multiplying contracts of this kind with other shale-rich nations.


Solar power generation reaches all-time peak with recent heatwave.

July 30, 2013

Like many, indeed most people across the UK, the team at TJC Global has been enjoying the delights of the recent heatwave and overall incredibly pleasant weather. But it is not just our suntans which have been benefiting from the sunshine, for the sunny weather of the past month has contributed to a significant increase in the amount of renewable solar power produced across the UK.

A combination of higher levels of sunlight during the day, coupled with an overall increase in the number of homes and buildings which have photovoltaic (PV) panels, or solar panels, installed has resulted in the UK’s solar power production levels reaching an all-time high.

Recent data released by the Solar Trade Association revealed that in the past month, during which the UK has experienced unprecedented consistent hot weather, solar power generation is at a record high. Indeed, the Solar Trade Association estimates that there are over 450,000 solar installations, the majority to be found on household roofs, which have a combined electricity capacity of 2.7GW. According to the Solar Trade Association, over 100,000 of these 450,000 photovoltaic panel installations were made within the past year alone.

On a typical day of continuous, strong sunshine in the UK, as we have experienced throughout the past weeks, solar power in the UK produces an average of 2 per cent of the UK’s total demand for electricity across a 24-hour period. However, when one takes into account that the majority of all electricity produced occurs during daytime hours only, photovoltaic (solar) power is in fact accountable for approximately 6 per cent of the electricity required to power the nation between 10am and 5pm.

And indeed, this is not an insignificant contribution to the UK’s electricity. Ray Noble, photovoltaic specialist at the Solar Trade Association, revealed some production levels from the past week: “The UK generated around 16,000MWh on Tuesday compared to 9,900MWh of wind. The total consumption of electricity on this relatively calm day was 766,987MWh.” Certainly, these figures are testimony to the UK’s phenomenal capacity for solar power generation.

Leonie Greene, communications director for the Solar Trade Association, referred to the UK’s several domestic installations, which are responsible for one third of all solar electricity generated in the UK. “But there are still very few medium-sized commercial or industrial installations,” said Ms. Greene. “If the government backed these they would see enormous payback.”

And it is not just the UK who has seen PV generation records broken this summer. In Germany, home to a huge 1.3million photovoltaic installations and the highest solar capacity in the world, over 40 per cent of the country’s daytime electricity was generated by solar power on July 7th. Talking about Germany’s phenomenal solar generation, Alan Simpson, a former MP and now independent adviser on renewable energy, praised Germany for its solar achievements: “Germany is now light years ahead of the UK and benefitting. Within a decade, many German towns and cities could be substantially ‘off-grid’ [or self sufficient] and will be taking the grid system out of the hands of the private energy companies.”

Mr. Simpson also pointed out, however, that whilst Germany’s solar prowess is indeed remarkable, it faces a problem, as whilst all but a few of the UK’s solar panels are south-facing, thus capturing peak sunshine throughout the day, German solar panels are not as uniform, resulting in massive peaks in the middle of the day. Simpson suggests that “[Germany] now need to come up with west-facing panels to spread the electricity generated across the day.”

Here’s hoping for a continuation of the sunny weather!


China and US join forces against climate change

July 20, 2013

China and the US collaborating in the fight against climate change? Impossible, we hear you say. And yet, after years of public stand-offs, the world’s two largest planet warmers – with 40 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions between them – last week reached a ground-breaking deal in Washington DC.

Working closely with private sector and non-governmental stakeholders, the Working Group will develop implementation plans for the following five initiatives by October 2013:

  • Reducing emissions from heavy-duty and other vehicles: Heavy-duty vehicles are the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation in the United States and account for more than half of transportation fuel consumed in China. Light-duty vehicles also contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, fuel use and air pollution. China and the U.S. will work together to raise heavy-duty fuel efficiency standards; produce cleaner fuels and vehicle emissions control technologies; and more efficient, clean freight.
  • Increasing carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS): Together, the United States and China account for more than 40 percent of global coal consumption. Emissions from coal combustion in the electric power and industrial sectors can be significantly reduced through CCUS. China and the United States will cooperate to overcome barriers to deploying CCUS by implementing several large-scale, integrated CCUS projects in both countries.
  • Increasing energy efficiency in buildings, industry, and transport: The United States and China recognize that there is significant scope for reducing emissions and reducing costs through comprehensive efforts to improve energy efficiency. Both sides commit to intensify their efforts, with an initial focus on promoting the energy efficiency of buildings, which account for over 30 percent of energy use in both countries, including through the use of innovative financing models.
  • Improving greenhouse gas data collection and management: Both countries place a high priority on comprehensive, accurate reporting of economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions data to track progress in reducing emissions and to develop and implement mitigation policies. The United States will work with China to build capacity for collection and management of greenhouse gas emissions data, a critical foundation for smart climate change policies in both countries.
  • Promoting smart grids: The power sector accounts for over one third of U.S. and Chinese carbon emissions. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector and put in place a resilient, low-carbon power grid, both countries are developing modern, “smart” grid systems, deploying renewable and clean energy, and improving demand management. The U.S. and China will collaborate on building smart grids that are more resilient, more efficient, and can incorporate more renewable energy and distributed generation.

Both countries are looking at quick fixes for greenhouse gases other than CO2. They will phase out hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), used as refrigerants, and harmonise vehicle emissions standards. That will include smoke emissions from large trucks, which also damages human lungs.

Observers said the biggest advance by the US-China Working Group on Climate Change was an agreement to work together to find commercial uses for CO2 captured from power plants – rather than letting it loose or storing it. The deal includes a promise to build large-scale demonstration projects.

“The focus on carbon capture and utilisation is important,” says Durwood Zaelke, president of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development in Washington DC. It could push forward schemes to use CO2 in cement, he said. “Storing CO2 in our highways and buildings is smart technology and smart business.”

The two countries also pledged to collaborate on smart power grids that can make greater use of intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power, and to identify the top ten energy efficiency technologies before their next meeting in October.

Sources: New Scientist and the US Department of State

TJC-Global offers an extensive global network of professional & experienced multilingual translators, proof-readers and interpreters. We also have academic researchers, specialists and speakers, who are all native speakers of over 180 languages.

TJC Global‘s medical interpretation service offers a complete package. Medical interpreting is a highly specialized area, and should only be attempted by qualified, experienced medical interpreters. Instructions, dosages and procedures must be conveyed accurately, and medical terminology must be fully understood. TJC Oxford has a network of Translators often holding a degree or certificate in the medical sciences, as well as being a native speaker in at least two languages. This means we can provide a bespoke medical interpretation service of unparaled quality, covering all aspects of the industry.

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